Sphene (Titanite)

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Chemical composition -- Calcium titanium silicate.

Color -- Yellow, green, brown, red, black.

Optics-- R.I. 1.84-2.11, biaxial positive, dispersion 0.051 (strong).

Durability -- Hardness 5-5.5. Brittle. Usable in jewelry not subject to intense wear (earrings, pins, etc.).

Crystal structure -- Monoclinic.

Specific Gravity -- 3.45-3.55.

Sources -- Mexico, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Madagascar, Brazil.

Sphene makes gorgeously brilliant, fiery gems. Clean stones larger than a few carats are extremely rare.

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